Liver Flukes in Goats

Liver flukes in goats were a real battle for my own herd the first year we moved to this bottomland where the snails and slugs are thriving. We lost one goat to it, but gradually everyone developed immunity. We pasture all season long on the bottomland and I haven’t treated for liver flukes in my goats since 2017.

The following research helps us look a little closer into potential remedies and mechanisms for liver fluke infestation. More will be added as time permits.

Activity of cumin essential oil to control fascioliasis: Efficacy and changes in the tegument of Fasciola hepatica


Fasciola hepatica, the liver trematode, infects ruminants and causes economic loss. Because parasites are developing resistance to commercial drugs, the negative effects of parasitism are increasing. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) essential oil against F. hepatica eggs and adults. The eggs were incubated with eight concentrations of the essential oil (0.031125-4.15 mg/mL), and viable eggs were counted after 14 days and classified as embryonated or non-embryonated. Adult flukes were incubated in Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium to ensure their viability and then incubated in essential oil. They were observed for 24 h after treatment. The adults were assessed with the two lowest effective oil concentrations used in the ovicidal test. Three controls were used for both tests: nitroxynil, a negative control, and Tween®80. After incubation in oil, the adult specimens were processed for histological analysis and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. In addition, the oil was tested for cytotoxicity using Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells to assess any possible effect on them. The oil was effective in ovicidal and adulticidal inhibition of the trematode, with statistically significant results. All concentrations assessed in the ovicidal test were 100% effective. The adult test was effective within 15 h and inactivated all the specimens at the highest concentration evaluated (0.06225 mg/mL). Histological analysis showed that cumin essential oil resulted in marked areas of vacuolization. The spines showed no structural changes but were surrounded by microvesicles. These findings indicated that cumin oil could be a potential compound in the control of fasciolosis.

Microscopic alterations in Fasciola hepatica treated with the essential oils of Pelargonium graveolens and Citrus aurantium


Fasciolosis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in animal health, affecting mainly ruminants, causing economic and productivity losses. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro ovicidal and adulticidal activity of essential oils (EOs) from Pelargonium graveolens (geranium) and Citrus aurantium (sour orange) on Fasciola hepatica. Performed Gas Chromatography of EOs P. graveolens and C. aurantium, with major compound, citronellol (31.37 %) and limonene (93.89 %), respectively. For the cytotoxicity assay, the sour orange EO showed to be promising when used in lower concentrations. For the ovicidal tests, the eggs were incubated with geranium EOs at concentrations from 4.5 to 0.03375 mg/mL and sour orange at concentrations from 4.25 to 0.031875 mg/mL, along with controls. The viable eggs were counted on the 14th day post-incubation. Adult forms of F. hepatica were incubated containing the EOs and observed for 24 h after treatment, as well as the control groups. Later the specimens were fixed for histological analysis. Geranium and sour orange EOs in trematode eggs at the concentrations tested were 100 % effective in inactivating hatching (p < 0.05) when compared to the untreated control. In the adulticidal test, the essential oil of P. graveolens at both concentrations tested (0.0675 and 0.03375) within 15 h, promoted the death of flukes. For C. aurantium, 18 h was enough to inactivate all specimens, up to a concentration of 0.06375. The histological analysis, observed the accumulation of liquid in the tegument in the specimens incubated in C. aurantium and P. graveolens, with vacuolization in the tegument and spines, preventing externalization. The results of the study present OEs with efficient ovicidal and adulticidal activity.

Anthelmintic activity of essential oils of Cymbopogon nardus and Azadirachta indica on Fasciola gigantica

The efficacy of essential oils of Cymbopogan nardus (citronella) and Azadirachta indica (neem) on Fasciola gigantica was assessed in vitro. The essential oil of citronella showed a potential anthelmintic activity whereas neem oil did not show any significant effect. Study revealed that 1% citronella oil showed anthelmintic effect on live Fasciola gigantica. The in vitro anthelmintic effect was evaluated in comparison with control and score index was made based on gross motility. The morphological variation and histopathological changes in treated and control fluke was studied.

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