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Methods, protocols, questions and discussion on both internal and external parasites, such as ticks, lice,... View more
Methods, protocols, questions and discussion on both internal and external parasites, such as ticks, lice, mites, strongyles, barberpole worms, coccidia and more.
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Barberpole WormsPosted by theholisticgoat on June 21, 2023 at 11:20 am
The plague of the goat world, barberpole worm is and can be managed naturally through a variety of methods, including essential oils, pasture rotation and more. Let’s discuss below.
- 6 Replies
- OrganizerJune 21, 2023 at 11:21 am
A paper on the innate resistance to BP that Nigerian Dwarf goats possess, from: https://www.parasite-journal.org/articles/parasite/full_html/2015/01/parasite130113/parasite130113.html
West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria’s humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture.”
- OrganizerJuly 29, 2023 at 3:39 pm
Summary of life cycle and general information on BP worm, a good couple minute read.
Fighting the Enemy: Controlling Barber Pole Worms in Sheep and Goats
- OrganizerJuly 29, 2023 at 3:40 pm
A Review: Haemonchus contortus Infection in Pasture-Based Sheep Production Systems, with a Focus on the Pathogenesis of Anaemia and Changes in Haematological Parameters
Infection with Haemonchus contortus parasites (haemonchosis) is an important cause of anaemia in sheep. Haemonchosis is a global problem, although sheep that are kept in warm, high rainfall environments are at the greatest risk of infection due to the favourable conditions for H. contortus survival. Following ingestion, the parasites develop in the abomasum of sheep. Various factors such as age, breed, health, nutritional status, and larval challenge influence the severity of clinical disease. Hyperacute, acute, and chronic haemonchosis are reviewed, focusing on the pathophysiology of haemonchosis, associated clinical signs, and haematological and biochemical findings.
Haemonchosis is an important cause of anaemia in sheep worldwide, particularly those that are kept in pasture-based systems in warm, high rainfall environments. Potential outcomes vary based on the severity of infection and the sheep’s immune response, however, in some sheep infection can lead to death. The consequences of Haemonchus contortus infection mean that it has been well-studied in a range of different farming systems. However, to our knowledge, there has not been a recent review focused on the pathophysiology of anaemia caused by haemonchosis. Thus, this review provides an in-depth discussion of the literature related to the pathophysiology of haemonchosis and associated clinical signs for hyperacute, acute, and chronic haemonchosis. Additionally, haematological and biochemical findings are presented, and various diagnostic methods are assessed.
Keywords: parasite, barbers pole, small ruminant, nematode, gastrointestinal parasite, worm
- OrganizerJuly 30, 2023 at 3:59 pm
A new paraprobiotic-based treatment for control of Haemonchus contortus in sheep
Haemonchus contortus is a critical parasite of goats and sheep. Infection by this blood-feeding gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasite has significant health consequences, especially in lambs and kids. The parasite has developed resistance to virtually all known classes of small molecule anthelmintics used to treat it, giving rise in some areas to multidrug resistant parasites that are very difficult to control. Thus, new anthelmintics are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal protein 5B (Cry5B), a naturally occurring protein made by a bacterium widely and safely used around the world as a bioinsecticide, represents a new non-small molecule modality for treating GINs. Cry5B has demonstrated anthelmintic activities against parasites of monogastric animals, including some related to those that infect humans, but has not yet been studied in a ruminant. Here we show that H. contortus adults are susceptible to Cry5B protein in vitro. Cry5B produced in its natural form as a spore-crystal lysate against H. contortus infections in goats had no significant efficacy. However, a new Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) paraprobiotic form of Cry5B called IBaCC (Inactivated Bacterium with Cytosolic Crystals), in which Cry5B crystals are encapsulated in dead Bt cell wall ghosts, showed excellent efficacy in vitro against larval stages of H. contortus and relative protein stability in bovine rumen fluid. When given to sheep experimentally infected with H. contortus as three 60 mg/kg doses, Cry5B IBaCC resulted in significant reductions in fecal egg counts (90%) and parasite burdens (72%), with a very high impact on female parasites (96% reduction). These data indicate that Cry5B IBaCC is a potent new treatment tool for small ruminants in the battle against H. contortus.
- MemberSeptember 3, 2023 at 7:34 pm
Pathology, Postmortem findings, life cycle information on haemonchus contortus (barberpole).
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