Mastitis In Sheep and Goats

  • theholisticgoat

    April 18, 2023 at 2:43 pm

    Lemongrass, kaffir lime and holy basil essential oils had different antibacterial effects against CNS and S. aureus isolated from dairy goats with subclinical mastitis. Lemongrass essential oil showed the highest antibacterial activity and has potential to be developed as an antibacterial agent or teat dip formula to control subclinical mastitis in goats. Further studies are required to develop a suitable formulation and to determine the in vivo efficacy in experimental animals.

  • theholisticgoat

    April 26, 2023 at 7:18 am
  • theholisticgoat

    April 26, 2023 at 7:21 am

    Epidemiology and antibiogram of common mastitis-causing bacteria in Beetal goats

    The results revealed that the overall prevalence of goat mastitis was 309 (61.8%), in which 260 (52%) and 49 (9.8%) cases were positive for subclinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis (CM), respectively. Streptococcus and E. coli were found to be the predominant isolates causing SCM and CM, respectively (p<0.001). It was observed that amoxicillin+clavulanic acid was highly sensitive to isolates of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus and ceftiofur sodium to isolates of Streptococcus and E. coli., while enrofloxacin was found to be sensitive to isolates of Streptococcus and E. coli. Risk factors such as herd structure, deworming, vaccination, presence of ticks, use of teat dip and mineral supplements, feeding type, age, parity, housing, blood in the milk, milk leakage, milk taste, and milk yield were found to have the strongest association with mastitis occurrence, while ease of milking has moderate association.

  • theholisticgoat

    April 28, 2023 at 10:16 am

    Feeding mastitis milk to organic dairy calves: effect on health and performance during suckling and on udder health at first calving

    Under the conditions of this study, no effects of feeding milk containing SAGTB on udder health after first calving were observed. But a power analysis indicated that the sample size in the current setup is insufficient to allow for assessment on mastitis risk after SAGTB exposition, as a minimal number of 4 calves infected (vs. 0 in the HMG) would have shown significant effects. High bacterial load, however, was associated with an increased incidence rate of diarrhoea. Thus, thermisation as a minimal preventive measure before feeding mastitis milk to calves might be beneficial for maintaining calf health.

  • theholisticgoat

    April 28, 2023 at 10:19 am

    Mycoplasmal Mastitis – Milk from Affected Cows Should Not be Fed to Calves

    How can Mycoplasma be controlled?

    Mastitis biosecurity programs can be used to decrease the risk of purchasing infected cattle. When purchasing cattle, bulk tank milk cultures from the herd of origin should be requested. Herd size and the portion of infected cows in the herd can influence the sensitivity of bulk tank milk cultures. Non lactating cows that calve after purchase should be isolated and milked last until a negative composite milk sample is obtained. Farmers that routinely purchase cattle should develop a biosecurity monitoring program in conjunction with their veterinarian. Submission of bulk tank milk for mycoplasma twice monthly would be appropriate for most herds and is cheap insurance.

    The management of sick and fresh cows also contributes to the spread of this organism. Fresh cows should not be housed in the same pens or milked with the same equipment as sick cows or cows with mastitis. The feeding of waste milk from infected cows to calves is another source of transmission of this disease throughout the herd. Calves fed infected milk may develop pneumonia, joint infections and head tilts related to ear infections. Milk from infected cows should not be fed to calves. A solution is to pasteurize waste milk which, if properly done, will eliminate the problem with calves.

  • theholisticgoat

    April 28, 2023 at 10:21 am

    Feeding Mastitic Milk to Calves:Review


    Milk from cows treated with antibiotics
    for mastitis and other disorders has been
    fed to young calves in fresh or fermented
    form. Growth of calves so fed bas been
    similar to that of control animals offered
    fermented colostrum or other liquid
    feeds. Incidence of health disorders in
    mastitic milk-fed calves has been no
    greater than in those fed control milks.
    Mastitic milk preserved by addition of
    propionic acid or formaldehyde was
    relatively unpalatable to the calves.
    Limited data indicate that first-lactation
    cows fed mastitic milk as calves suffered
    no more udder trouble than did their
    mates formerly given other liquid feeds.

  • theholisticgoat

    May 13, 2023 at 9:54 am

    Invited review: Mastitis in dairy heifers: nature of the disease, potential impact, prevention, and control


    Heifer mastitis is a disease that potentially threatens production and udder health in the first and subsequent lactations. In general, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant cause of intramammary infection and subclinical mastitis in heifers around parturition, whereas Staphylococcus aureus and environmental pathogens cause a minority of the cases. Clinical heifer mastitis is typically caused by the major pathogens. The variation in proportions of causative pathogens between studies, herds, and countries is considerable. The magnitude of the effect of heifer mastitis on an individual animal is influenced by the form of mastitis (clinical versus subclinical), the virulence of the causative pathogen(s) (major versus minor pathogens), the time of onset of infection relative to calving, cure or persistence of the infection when milk production has started, and the host’s immunity. Intramammary infection in early lactation caused by CNS does not generally have a negative effect on subsequent productivity. At the herd level, the impact will depend on the prevalence and incidence of the disease, the nature of the problem (clinical, subclinical, nonfunctional quarters), the causative pathogens involved (major versus minor pathogens), the ability of the animals to cope with the disease, and the response of the dairy manager to control the disease through management changes. Specific recommendations to prevent and control mastitis in late gestation in periparturient heifers are not part of the current National Mastitis Council mastitis and prevention program. Control and prevention is currently based on avoidance of inter-sucking among young stock, fly control, optimal nutrition, and implementation of hygiene control and comfort measures, especially around calving. More risk factors for subclinical and clinical heifer mastitis have been identified (e.g., season, location of herd, stage of pregnancy) although they do not lend themselves to the development of specific intervention strategies designed to prevent the disease. Pathogen-specific risk factors and associated control measures need to be identified due to the pathogen-related variation in epidemiology and effect on future performance. Prepartum intramammary treatment with antibiotics has been proposed as a simple and effective way of controlling heifer mastitis but positive long-lasting effects on somatic cell count and milk yield do not always occur, ruling out universal recommendation of this practice. Moreover, use of antibiotics in this manner is off-label and results in an increased risk of antibiotic residues in milk. Prepartum treatment can be implemented only as a short-term measure to assist in the control of a significant heifer mastitis problem under supervision of the herd veterinarian. When CNS are the major cause of intramammary infection in heifers, productivity is not affected, making prepartum treatment redundant and even unwanted. In conclusion, heifer mastitis can affect the profitability of dairy farming because of a potential long-term negative effect on udder health and milk production and an associated culling risk, specifically when major pathogens are involved. Prevention and control is not easy but is possible through changes in young stock and heifer management. However, the pathogenesis and epidemiology of the disease remain largely unknown and more pathogen-specific risk factors should be identified to optimize current prevention programs.

  • theholisticgoat

    May 13, 2023 at 10:06 am

    I was particularly interested in whether or not we could confirm that mastitis infected milk fed to heifers could be linked to mastitis in the heifer.

    Sources of Intramammary Infections
    from Staphylococcus aureus
    in Dairy Heifers at First Parturition

    “Mode of Transmission
    The consumption of milk containing S. aureus by
    preweaned heifer calves is one obvious route of S.
    aureus transmission. However, results from a previous study do not support this premise because no
    preweaned heifers with S. aureus isolated from a body
    site were persistently colonized from birth to first
    parturition (17). Although S. aureus from milk may
    be an important source of S. aureus from heifer colostrum, little evidence was gained as to how this transmission occurs (in 41% of 61 heifers, only S. aureus
    from milk were the same). One plausible explanation
    is social contact among prepartum heifers. Evidence
    to support this explanation is presented in Table 4, in
    which the strain identified in heifer colostrum at
    parturition was also identified on body sites of multiple heifers of similar age. Prepartum heifers in herd
    G were partially raised in a heifer rearing feedlot,
    and social contact with heifers from numerous other
    dairies may explain the presence of newly acquired
    strains in this low prevalence dairy herd.”

  • theholisticgoat

    May 18, 2023 at 6:57 am

    Camphor oil. Here’s a testimonial sent to me by a friend who took this screenshot on Facebook.

  • theholisticgoat

    September 9, 2023 at 6:56 am

    Integration of Network Pharmacology and Molecular Docking to Analyse the Mechanism of Action of Oregano Essential Oil in the Treatment of Bovine Mastitis

    Simple Summary

    Oregano essential oil is a plant essential oil extracted from the plant oregano (Origanum vulgare), which has an antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effect. Bovine mastitis is a process in which bacterial infection and inflammation co-exist. In this study, network pharmacology technology was used to explore the mechanism of oregano essential oil in the treatment of bovine mastitis, and to predict the core genes and key signaling pathways exerting therapeutic effects. The results showed that the key action targets of oregano essential oil in the treatment of dairy bovine mastitis were TNF, TLR4, ALB, IL-1β, TLR2, IL-6, IFNG, and MyD88, and the main signaling pathways were PI3K-Akt, MAPK, IL-17, NF-κ B. The molecular docking confirmed that thymol and carvacrol in oregano essential oil had a good binding ability to the core targets of TNF, IL-6, MyD88, and ALB. These results indicated that thymol and carvacrol had good anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, oregano essential oil was considered to have a good therapeutic effect on bovine mastitis.

  • theholisticgoat

    September 23, 2023 at 10:35 am

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