Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL)

  • Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL)

    Posted by theholisticgoat on June 15, 2023 at 8:34 am

    Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL) is a chronically
    infectious, zoonotic disease of sheep and goats that
    is caused by the bacterium
    . CL causes abscesses in both
    goats and sheep which can be difficult to cure and
    can lead to reduced production and on occasion,

    Found throughout the world, CL causes ulcerative
    lymphadenitis in horses and superficial abscesses in
    cattle, swine, rabbits, deer, laboratory animals, and

    Economic losses due to CL result from loss of
    breeding stock sales, reduced productivity, carcass
    condemnation due to internal abscesses, animal
    death, and abscesses that devalue hides.

    C. pseudotuberculosis bacteria is hardy and can
    survive in the soil for up to 2 years, even in dry
    climates with high sun exposure. CL is transferred
    between animals or to humans through the skin or
    by ingestion, inhalation, or contact with
    contaminated equipment, facilities, pastures, and
    troughs. This transfer commonly occurs when an
    abscess ruptures and the contagious pus enters
    another animal through direct contact, open
    wounds, ingestion or via vectors such as flies.
    CL positive does can also transmit CL to kids
    through nursing if a CL abscess is found on the
    mammary gland. The disease can also be transferred
    through contaminated needles during vaccinations.”

    theholisticgoat replied 2 months, 3 weeks ago 2 Members · 8 Replies
  • 8 Replies
  • theholisticgoat

    July 12, 2023 at 2:03 pm

    From Merck, of particular note is the Treatment and Control section:

    Recent studies have shown that administration of one dose of tulathromycin at 2.5 mg/kg, either SC directly into the abscess cavity, or two doses at 2.5 mg/kg, administered at the same time, one SC and one intralesionally, can resolve the lesions without lancing the abscess. Further, effective concentrations of tulathromycin can be achieved within walled-off abscesses caused by C pseudotuberculosis after a single dose at 2.5 mg/kg, SC. The highly lipid-soluble property of tulathromycin may be particularly helpful in cases of internal CL, when abscesses are not accessible for other forms of treatment. Despite the efficacy of intralesional and parenteral administration of tulathromycin in many cases, recurrence remains a problem. Therefore, use of these drugs cannot be considered curative but rather an acceptable alternative to manage cases of CL when culling from the herd or flock is not an acceptable option for the owner.”

  • theholisticgoat

    July 20, 2023 at 8:03 pm


    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (C. pseudotuberculosis) is a causative organism of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) in sheep and acute disease in buffaloes known as oedematous skin disease (OSD). Human affected with the disease show liver abscess and abscess in the internal lymph nodes. The vaccination against CLA up till now occurs by using formalin inactivated whole cells of biovar 1 (sheep strain). Combined vaccine composed of formalin inactivated whole cells of sheep strain and recombinant phospholipase D (rPLD) and another vaccine composed of formalin inactivated whole cells (buffalo origin) and rPLD were prepared in Biotechnology center for services and Researches laboratory at Cairo university and applied for protection against CLA. Both vaccines induced complete protection (100%) against challenge with virulent biovar 1 or biovar 2. Also vaccination against OSD was performed by two types of vaccines. Vaccine-1 was composed of formalin inactivated whole cell biovar 1 combined with rPLD and the second vaccine was composed of formalin inactivated whole cells of biovar 2 combined with rPLD. No lesions developed in vaccinated and non vaccinated buffaloes challenged with C. pseudotuberculosis biovar revealing that biovar 1 C. pseudotuberculosis is not infective for buffaloes. Buffaloes vaccinated with the second vaccine and control non vaccinated animals challenged with biovar 2 (buffalo origin) resulted in development of OSD in all animals. This indicates that OSD results due to production of toxin (s) other than PLD. Discovering this toxin (s) is of value in formulation of a future vaccine against OSD.

  • theholisticgoat

    July 20, 2023 at 8:05 pm

    Response with TH1 profile obtained in vaccine formulation against Caseous Lymphadenitis in animal model C57 Black/6


    Caseous Lymphadenitis (CLA) is a contagious disease that compromises the quality of life of sheep and goats. Caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis CLA is responsible for considerable economic losses in sheep and goat farming. Therefore, the search for preventive measures, such as the development of vaccines is increasing. To evaluate the immunoprotective response of experimental vaccines different murine models susceptible to infections are used. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the protective potential of the recombinant subunit vaccine using an endoglycosidase (rCP40) of C. pseudotuberculosis associated with Saponin and Complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) in murine model C57/Black6. Thus, four groups of animals were separated, where G1 and G2 were control groups and G3 and G4 were experimental groups (rCP40 + Saponin) and (rCP40 + CFA) respectively. The evaluation of the production of reactive antibodies to rCP40 showed that the animals inoculated with the adjuvants presented potentiation of the cellular and humoral immune response, presenting higher production of IgG2a and IgG2b. After the challenge, only the control groups died, while in the experimental groups, although some survived, they presented granulomas, which are characteristics of CLA.

  • theholisticgoat

    July 20, 2023 at 8:07 pm

    Vaccines for caseous lymphadenitis: up-to-date and forward-looking strategies

    Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is an infectious chronic disease responsible for economic losses in sheep and goat breeding worldwide. CLA has no effective treatment, evidencing the vaccination schedule as the best control strategy. Although some commercial vaccines have been available, none of them provides total protection, which is sometimes insufficient and does not reach the same efficiency when compared in sheep and goats. They also have questionable safety levels and side effects. In light of this, several experimental vaccines are in development in order to improve safety, reproducibility, and protective immune response against the etiologic agent of CLA, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. In this review, we discussed aspects as antigen, adjuvant, routes of administration, protection level, and animal models used in CLA vaccine development, as well the challenges and future perspectives.

  • theholisticgoat

    July 20, 2023 at 8:15 pm

    Management of a caseous lymphadenitis outbreak in a new Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) stock reservoir


    A role for captivity in contagion rate is suggested by the increase in antibody levels against C. pseudotuberculosis and the emergence of clinical signs. Although boosted by captivity, this is the first report of an outbreak of caseous lymphadenitis displaying high morbidity and mortality in wild ungulates. Treatment consisting of both vaccination and antibiotic therapy seemed to prevent mortality and alleviate disease severity, but was not reflected in the humoural response. Haematology and APP were not useful indicators in our study, perhaps due to the sampling frequency. Presumably endemic and irrelevant in the wild, this common disease of domestic small ruminants is complicating conservation efforts for the Iberian ibex in north-eastern Spain.

  • theholisticgoat

    September 8, 2023 at 4:13 pm

    Distribution and Risk Factors of Clinical Caseous
    Lymphadenitis in Small-Holder Goat Herds
    in Northeastern Thailand


    Clinical caseous lymphadenitis was observed in 60 of 1,186 goats. A total of 34 small holder goat farms were
    investigated in 11 provinces in the northeastern part of Thailand. Approximately 66.67% of clinical caseous
    lymphadenitis goats were infected with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, as confirmed by an ELISA test or bacterial
    culture. The average prevalence of clinical caseous lymphadenitis in herds was 6.36+4.30% (4.86–7.86; 95% CI). The
    abscessation of a superficial lymph node was commonly found in proximal (46.67%), middle (38.33%), and distal (15%)
    parts of the body. The location of the lesion was significantly associated (p<0.05) with positivity either from ELISA or
    bacterial culture, as goats with lesions inthe distal part of the body showed a higher positivity (90%)than at theproximal
    (75%) and middle parts (45%) (p=0.02), respectively. No significant difference was observed for goat gender, age, or
    breed in terms of infection prevalence or displays of clinical signs of caseous lymphadenitis (p>0.05). Control and
    prevention measures should incorporate client education on a number of factors, including disease transmission to
    humans, clinical signs, impact on animal health and production loss and treatment.

  • Haley

    September 9, 2023 at 9:09 am

    Article discusses vaccine advances, cellular activity of the bacteria, and sensitivity to antibiotics.


    Bacteria not controlled by the abscess wall enter the capillaries and form colonies that occlude the blood vessels, generating ischemia that, together with toxins, destroy the cells of healthy tissue, increasing the necrotic mass. Viable bacteria spread through the lymphatic vessels and penetrate other lymph nodes and blood vessels, reaching different organs where abscess formation is repeated. This behavior originates the clinical manifestations of the visceral type of the disease, which affects internal lymph nodes and organs, especially lungs and liver.

  • theholisticgoat

    September 9, 2023 at 10:46 am

    Shareable diagrams confirmed with a couple hours of research and discussion with a CL knowledgeable producer who has real life knowledge of abscess locations (I do not). Yay for graphics!

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