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Minerals are perhaps the single most important nutritional component to ensure health and vigor. Let’s... View more
Minerals are perhaps the single most important nutritional component to ensure health and vigor. Let’s dive into each mineral, mineral options and how to improve mineral balance in our goats.
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- OrganizerJune 22, 2023 at 1:39 pm
Zinc-responsive dermatosis in goats suggestive of hereditary malabsorption: two field cases
Two cases of zinc deficiency in dairy goats from different flocks and not associated with a zinc-deficient diet are described. Hard, dry, hyperkeratotic skin, hair loss and pruritus especially prominent on the back, legs, udder, face and ears were the most common clinical signs. Skin biopsy findings revealed a mixture of orthokeratotic and parakeratotic hyperkeratosis. On initial examination, serum zinc concentrations were low in both goats (461 microg L(-1) and 521 microg L(-1), respectively). Although mild skin lesions persisted during the early stages of zinc supplementation, skin lesions completely resolved after prolonged oral zinc supplementation. Withdrawal of zinc supplementation resulted in re-appearance of lesions in both animals. Case 2 gave birth to two kids, one of which showed mild skin lesions at 8 months of age together with a low serum zinc concentration (434 microg L(-1)), suggestive of hereditary zinc malabsorption. The other kid remained free of skin lesions and had a serum zinc concentration (530 microg L(-1)) within the normal range. On the basis of historical and clinical findings, the cases presented here more closely resemble Syndrome 1 hereditary zinc deficiency as seen in Nordic dog breeds rather than other zinc deficiency conditions seen in other species. It is suggested that zinc deficiency in these goats was due to hereditary malabsorption of dietary zinc. This is the first descriptive study of this condition in goats. Life-long zinc supplementation may be necessary in such patients.
- OrganizerAugust 5, 2023 at 10:55 am
Zinc absorption by young adults from supplemental zinc citrate is comparable with that from zinc gluconate and higher than from zinc oxide
The water-soluble zinc salts gluconate, sulfate, and acetate are commonly used as supplements in tablet or syrup form to prevent zinc deficiency and to treat diarrhea in children in combination with oral rehydration. Zinc citrate is an alternative compound with high zinc content, slightly soluble in water, which has better sensory properties in syrups but no absorption data in humans. We used the double-isotope tracer method with (67)Zn and (70)Zn to measure zinc absorption from zinc citrate given as supplements containing 10 mg of zinc to 15 healthy adults without food and compared absorption with that from zinc gluconate and zinc oxide (insoluble in water) using a randomized, double-masked, 3-way crossover design. Median (IQR) fractional absorption of zinc from zinc citrate was 61.3% (56.6-71.0) and was not different from that from zinc gluconate with 60.9% (50.6-71.7). Absorption from zinc oxide at 49.9% (40.9-57.7) was significantly lower than from both other supplements (P < 0.01). Three participants had little or no absorption from zinc oxide. We conclude that zinc citrate, given as a supplement without food, is as well absorbed by healthy adults as zinc gluconate and may thus be a useful alternative for preventing zinc deficiency and treating diarrhea. The more insoluble zinc oxide is less well absorbed when given as a supplement without food and may be minimally absorbed by some individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01576627.
My notes: Studies like these highlight the importance of different types of a mineral. This is something to research more deeply and understand more how it relates to the goat world. My current hypothesis is that like with humans, individual goats will assimilate different forms of a mineral differently. Is it possible to explore multiple types of each mineral within a herd to see what they prefer?
- OrganizerAugust 5, 2023 at 10:57 am
Comparative absorption of zinc picolinate, zinc citrate and zinc gluconate in humans
The comparative absorption of zinc after oral administration of three different complexed forms was studied in 15 healthy human volunteers in a double-blind four-period crossover trial. The individuals were randomly divided into four groups. Each group rotated for four week periods through a random sequence of oral supplementation including: zinc picolinate, zinc citrate, and zinc gluconate (equivalent to 50 mg elemental zinc per day) and placebo. Zinc was measured in hair, urine, erythrocyte and serum before and after each period. At the end of four weeks hair, urine and erythrocyte zinc levels rose significantly (p less than 0.005, p less than 0.001, and p less than 0.001) during zinc picolinate administration. There was no significant change in any of these parameters from zinc gluconate, zinc citrate or placebo administration. There was a small, insignificant rise in serum zinc during zinc picolinate, zinc citrate and placebo supplementation. The results of this study suggest that zinc absorption in humans can be improved by complexing zinc with picolinic acid.
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