• theholisticgoat

    September 23, 2023 at 8:17 am

    The effects of intraruminal infusions of sodium bicarbonate, ammonium chloride and sodium butyrate on urea metabolism in sheep

    My note:

    • sodium chloride is table salt

    • ammonium chloride is the substance often recommended as fed preventively for urinary calculi

    • sodium bicarbonate is baking soda and is one of the 2 ingredients for NA from Free Choice in the buffet

    • sodium butyrate is another type of sodium created in the lower intestine in humans and something I am researching more. Its chemical name is NA.

    1. Three sheep fitted with rumen cannulas were fed hourly a daily ration of 1000 g pelleted-grass cubes, and during four successive 2-week periods were intraruminally infused (0·45 l/d) with solutions containing sodium chloride (0·47 mol/d), sodium bicarbonate (0·47 mol/d), ammonium chloride (0·47 mol/d) and sodium butyrate (0·47 mol/d). Each solution, except that for NaHCO3, was adjusted to pH 7 before infusion, and provided equal sodium intakes for sheep in all periods.

    2. In the final week of each infusion period, a balance trial was conducted and on separate days each sheep was continuously infused with [14C]urea and NaH14CO3 intravenously and NaH14CO3 intraruminally. Carbon transfer rates between blood urea, blood bicarbonate and rumen fluid bicarbonate were calculated from the specific radioactivity of urea and bicarbonate samples and isotope infusion rates during each experimental period.

    3. There was no significant effect of intraruminal infusions on N balance, and with the exception of sheep in fused with NH4Cl, all sheep utilized apparently digested N with similar efficiency for N retention. Sheep infused with NH4Cl (6·2 g N/d) excreted the equivalent of 93% of the infused N as urea in urine.

    4. Infusion of NaHCO3. NH4Cl and sodium butyrate significantly (P < 0·05) increased the rurnen fluid concentrations of bicarbonate, ammonia and butyric acid respectively, and all infusions significantly (P < 0·05) increased total volatile fatty acid concentrations. Both NaHCO3 and sodium, butyrate significantly (P < 0·05) increased the pH of rumen fluid There was no significant effect of infusion on the proportions of propionic acid or the osmolality of rumen fluid.

    5. Intraruminal infusions of NH4Cl significantly (P < 0·05) increased and infusion of sodium butyrate significantly (P < 0·05) decreased plasma urea concentrations. Sheep infused with NH4Cl had higher rates of urea synthesis and urinary urea excretion compared with sheep on the other treatments, and a significantly (P < 0·05) lower proportion of urea synthesized by these sheep was degraded in the digestive tract. Sheep infused with sodium butyrate degraded a significantly (P < 0·05) greater amount (3·2 g N/d) and proportion (0·24) of total urea synthesis in the rumen than did sheep infused with NaCl. Corresponding values for the control (NaCl) sheep were 1·5 g N/d and 0·13 respectively. There was no significant effect of other infusions on the amount of urea recycled to the rumen or on the distribution of total urea degradation between the rumen and lower digestive tract. Plasma urea clearance to the rumen was significantly (P < 0·05) increased during sodium butyrate infusion, and the clearance of urea to the lower digestive tract was significantly (P < 0·05) decreased during NH4Cl infusion.

    6. The mechanism by which urea entry into the rumen is regulated by rumen metabolite levels is discussed.

    See full PDF attached, sourced from:

  • theholisticgoat

    September 23, 2023 at 8:20 am

    Supplementation with sodium butyrate improves growth and antioxidant function in dairy calves before weaning



    There is increasing research interest in using short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) including butyrate as potential alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in animal production. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementation of sodium butyrate (SB) in liquid feeds (milk, milk replacer, and the mixture of both) on the growth performance, rumen fermentation, and serum antioxidant capacity and immunoglobins in dairy calves before weaning. Forty healthy female Holstein calves (4-day-old, 40 ± 5 kg of body weight) were housed in individual hutches and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatment groups (n = 10 per group) using the RAND function in Excel. The control group was fed no SB (SB0), while the other three groups were supplemented with 15 (SB15), 30 (SB30), or 45 (SB45) g/d of SB mixed into liquid feeds offered. The calves were initially fed milk only (days 2 to 20), then a mixture of milk and milk replacer (days 21 to 23), and finally milk replacer only (days 24 to 60).


    The SB supplementation enhanced growth and improved feed conversion into body weight gain compared with the SB0 group, and the average daily gain increased quadratically with increasing SB supplementation. No significant effect on rumen pH; concentrations of NH3-N, individual and total VFAs; or acetate: propionate (A:P) ratio was found during the whole experimental period. Serum glutathione peroxidase activity increased linearly with the increased SB supplementation, while the serum concentration of maleic dialdehyde linearly decreased. Serum concentrations of immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin G, or immunoglobulin M were not affected by the SB supplementation during the whole experimental period.


    Under the conditions of this study, SB supplementation improved growth performance and antioxidant function in pre-weaned dairy calves. We recommended 45 g/d as the optimal level of SB supplementation mixed into liquid feeds (milk or milk replacer) to improve the growth and antioxidant function of dairy calves before weaning.

    See complete PDF attached for more reading.

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