Orange Essential Oils

  • theholisticgoat

    May 3, 2023 at 7:14 am

    In the sheep trial, 18 lambs were orally inoculated with 10,000 L3 H. contortus. One month later, two groups of six lambs each were dosed with 600 mg/kg BW orange oil either once or daily for 3 days. Fecal egg counts were monitored daily starting on the first day of treatment (Day 0) and continuing for 14 days. Results showed that a single dose of the product caused high fecal egg count reduction (97.4%) compared to control sheep. Egg counts were significantly reduced by Day 2 (P<0.0001). Thus, the orange oil emulsion may potentially be useful in the control of ovine haemonchosis.

    (Here are some math scribbles I did to help break down the dosage.)

    75# = 34kg

    600mg/kg = 20400

    20400mg = .72 oz

    .72oz = 20g

    .001 ounces per pound or .27 grams per pound

  • theholisticgoat

    June 22, 2023 at 1:00 pm

    Adverse reactions after orange essential oil administration to lambs


    “The major compound in orange essential oil (OEO) is limonene, which has in vitro anthelmintic properties; however, a safe in vivo dose has not been defined for animals. Therefore, a pilot study was conducted to evaluate the effect of an OEO formulation for the control of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and to investigate adverse reactions in lambs after OEO administration. A total of 17 lambs received an oral OEO formulation at a concentration of 600 mg/mL, in doses of 200, 300, and 600 mg/kg. The most common clinical signs observed were head shaking (88.8%), backward head movement (51.1%), and ataxia (74.4%). Lambs treated with 600 mg/kg of OEO showed more severe combined clinical signs and longer duration of symptoms, presenting adverse reactions for up to 2 h after OEO administration. Testing of different doses and formulations with slower release of the active ingredient is recommended to minimize or eliminate these effects.”

  • theholisticgoat

    June 22, 2023 at 1:01 pm

    Anthelmintic activity in vitro of Citrus sinensis and Melaleuca quinquenervia essential oil from Cuba on Haemonchus contortus


    Gastrointestinal nematodes are an important problem in the small ruminant production and their control nearly exclusively depends on commercial anthelmintics. However, parasite resistance to those chemical formulations is an increasing global problem, so new plant-derived compounds are being studied for their potential use against gastrointestinal nematodes. Citrus sinensis and Melaleuca quinquenervia essential oils were evaluated against Haemonchus contortus Embrapa2010 resistant isolate, through the egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT) at concentrations ranging from 0.02 mg/mL to 50 mg/mL and from 0.04 mg/mL to 3.12 mg/mL, respectively. All concentrations, positive controls (thiabendazole in EHT or ivermectin in LDT), and negative controls (2% Tween 80 in EHT or 0.5% DMSO in LDT) were performed in six replicates and in three independent experiments, for a total of 18 repetitions involving approximately 1800 parasites per treatment. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.01) of inhibition percentages were identified by one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey test. Inhibitory concentration values (IC50 and IC90) were analyzed by the Probit procedure of SAS. The essential oils evaluated showed that C. sinensis presented limonene as major component (96.0%), while M. quinquenervia contained longifolene (32.95%) and 1,8-cineole (25.43%) as major components. In the EHT, the IC50 and IC90 of the essential oils were respectively 0.27 and 0.99 mg/mL for C. sinensis and, 1.52 and 5.63 mg/mL for M. quinquenervia. In the LDT, the IC50 and IC90 were 0.97 and 2.32 mg/mL for C. sinensis and, 0.44 and 0.94 mg/mL for M. quinquenervia. C. sinensis was five times more effective on eggs than M. quinquenervia. However, it was twice more effective on larvae than C. sinensis, indicating that bioactive essential oils have different modes of action. The results suggest that these compounds are good candidates for nematode control. However, alternative anthelmintics have to be safe to the host, promote parasite control in vivo and not generate residues. So, all these key points need to be elucidated before using any plant extract and/or components.”

  • theholisticgoat

    July 30, 2023 at 3:28 pm


    My note: this is mandarin orange.

    Objective: The prevalence of worm infestation is high in underdeveloped and developing countries due to poor sanitation and lack of health education. Citrus reticulata, fruit belonging to citrus family Rutaceae is a common fruit native to Asia. Peels of the fruit are rich in limonene, a potent phytoconstituent having anthelmintic activity. However, proper utilization of peels has not been done as it is not consumed and is therefore discarded. The main objective of the study was to explore various phytoconstituents present in C. reticulata and its anthelmintic effect.

    Methods: Various concentration of methanolic extract and volatile oil of C. reticulata were subjected for assessment of anthelmintic activity in earthworms. Time of paralysis and time of death were used as an evaluation parameter. Albendazole (25 mg/ml) was used as a standard drug.

    Results: Phytochemical test revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, and glycosides. Concentration- dependent anthelmintic effect was observed with the extract were 150 mg/ml concentration of methanolic extract showed paralysis of test worm (earthworm) at 5.76 minutes and death at 19.16 minutes, respectively.

    Conclusion: C. reticulata peel has shown substantial anthelmintic activity using in vitro model on earthworms. Hence, further research is required to understand its mechanism of action using in vivo models to confirm its anthelmintic potential.

    Keyword: Citrus reticulata, Anthelmintic activity, Phytochemical constituents, Pheretima phostuma.

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